Photos, including high-resolution versions, can be used without further notice to promote the findings reported in the Science paper entitled "Catchment properties and the photosynthetic trait composition of freshwater plant communities" DOI10.1126/science.aay5945. Credits are noted for all photos together with a brief caption.


Aquatic plants that are capable to utilize bicarbonate often show signs of precipitated calcium carbonate on their leaf surfaces (the tiny white particles on the leaves). The example above is from 'curly waterweed' (Lagorasiphon major). Photo by Ole Pedersen. 

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Bicarbonate users according to eco-regions (Figure 1A in the publication). 
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With their diversity of shapes and colors, aquatic plants are frequently used as ornamental plants in aquaria. A study published in Science shows that the global distribution of aquatic plants is controlled by their ability to use bicarbonate in photosynthesis.  Photo by Ole Pedersen.

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Aquatic plants from lakes with low concentrations of bicarbonate utilize CO2 from the sediment in order to compensate for the low concentration of CO2 in the lake water. Photo by Ole Pedersen.

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Species of starworts are usually unable to utilize bicarbonate in their photosynthesis. Hence, these are primarily in dense underwater cushions in streams. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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Extensive photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often revealed as oxygen bubble formation. The example above is from Hemianthus callitroides which relies entirely on CO2 as source of inorganic carbon. Photo by Ole Pedersen.

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Bicarbonate world map (Figure S2 in the publication).
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In dense communities of aquatic plants it is of great competitive advantage to the plants if they are capable of utilizing bicarbonate in their photosynthesis. 

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Species of starworts are usually unable to utilize bicarbonate in their photosynthesis. Hence, these are primarily in dense underwater cushions in streams. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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An underwater landscape dominated by Characeans and pondweeds. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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Ponds and lakes are attractive features in the landscape and they often sustain a rich community of aquatic plants. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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An underwater meadow in a sub-arctic lake formed by Potamogeton alpinus. It remains to be tested if this type of pondweed is capable of utilizing bicarbonate in its photosynthesis. Photo by Ole Pedersen.

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Streams are naturally high in CO2 and therefore bicarbonate-use is of little advantage. In fact, several species of wetland plants can develop aquatic life stages and most of these are restricted to CO2-use. Photo by Ole Pedersen.

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Species of Bacopa are often used as ornamental plants in aquaria. However, they also form large, dense communities in streams and ponds primarily in the Americas. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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Hornworts (Ceratophyllum sp.) is found worldwide and in some regions it is classified as invasive species. They grow fast and is capable of utilizing bicarbonate in photosynthesis. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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Ponds and lakes are attractive features in the landscape and they often sustain a rich community of aquatic plants. Photo by Lars L Iversen.

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